The Desktop (for individual use), Server (provides sharing, collaboration and security of data), Online, Mobile, Reader (a desktop version to read and interpret data. It has the workbook file to store the saved data), and Public (interactive between users). Although there are many charts that are in place to visualize data, the good news for you is that Tableau does not require you to know anything about them. Yes, the tool is intelligent enough to suggest which kind of data visualization will suit your data type and also allows you to manually change it if you want to do so.
Tableau comprises of 3 parts. The worksheets, the dashboard and the layout container. The dashboard is the core and is a coagulated display of all the worksheets and if you work with more than one worksheet, you will see how the magic happens here. Each worksheet in the dashboard has visualizations of different kinds of data, streaming in from different sources. The layout containers allow you to change the co-relation between the different data visualizations (e.g. graphs and charts)